Astrolabe, by Muhammad ibn Sa`id as-Sabban, Guadalajara, 1081/2
The mater is engraved with a circular astrological table. One of the plates is marked with the twelve astrological houses. Some of the plates have lines for Muslim prayers. On the back of the mater, the zodiac/calendar scale includes the twenty-eight astrological mansions of the moon.
Qibla Indicator and Horizontal Pin-Gnomon Dial, Persian?, 19th Century
The upper surface is divided into four quarters by a meridional and an East-West line. There is a compass and a horizontal pin-gnomon sundial (gnomon missing) for Babylonian hours. Above the East-West line are marked the positions of various towns in relation to Mecca.
Horizontal Pin-Gnomon Sundial and Qibla Indicator, Persian, 18th Century?
Includes a horizontal pin-gnomon dial, engraved with hour-lines for Babylonian hours and with circles to show the declination of the sun. In the lower section is a circle, divided into degrees, and showing the direction of various places, including the azimuth of the Qibla.
Geometrical Quadrant, by Christoph Schissler, Augsburg, 1579
This weighty and elaborately decorated instrument includes a remarkable series of reliefs showing surveyors at work with a variety of mathematical instruments. As well as Western European figures, many of the surveyors wear Ottoman costume.